Paranormal events cause energy disturbances across the entire electromagnetic spectrum (from the low-frequency infrared through the visible light spectrum, into high-frequency ultraviolet energy, and on to x-rays and gamma rays). It seems paranormal events tap into existing energy sources around us to manifest in our reality and disrupt the natural (or background) energy levels. These unexplainable fluctuations are genuine evidence of paranormal activity. There are seven main categories of electronic detection equipment used by investigators to capture these energy fluctuations associated with paranormal phenomena: EMF Detectors, Temperature Sensors, Static Electricity & Ionization Detectors, Motion Detectors, EVP & Listening Devices, RF Detectors, and Radiation Monitors.
EMF DETECTORS: Three kinds of instruments are generally used to detect electro-magnetic fields (EMF). They are the electric field, magnetic field, and radio frequency (RF) meters. The favorite for most paranormal researchers are the Multi-Field Meters, which measure two to three of these fields at once. They usually feature a fast reacting needle gauge, at least two sensitivity scales, and are very easy to use. Other meters monitor the combined magnetic and electric field strength and are known as Gaussmeters (or Teslameters). The ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) models are best for paranormal research. For monitoring microwave and radio frequencies and also help detect hidden sound or spy equipment, the paranormal researchers make use of RF Meters. It should be noted that all gaussmeters, electric field meters, RF/microwave meters, etc. can only measure the strength of the field at the location of the meter. The meters can be placed in stationary positions or used like mobile probes while walking around during an investigation. What distinguishes one meter from another is the sensitivity (or the smallest field strength that the meter can detect). For instance, a gaussmeter with a sensitivity of 0.1 mG (milligauss) is ten times more sensitive than a meter that can only detect down to 1.0 mG. While a more sensitive meter can be successfully used further away from the source of the field, it is still only measuring the weaker field at the location of the meter. In looking for a more sensitive meter, compare the minimum sensitivity rating of one meter to another. How effectively a meter can detect a field depends on the strength of the field at the source, the pattern of radiation from the source, and the rate that the field decreases with distance (1/d, 1/d², 1/d³, etc.). Some EMF sources may have symmetrical field patterns, some may not. A single-axis detector is sensitive to the field directly in front of the probe and must be rotated during use to find the proper orientation to the source field being measured to get accurate readings, while a three-axis detector is sensitive all around the probe and is omnidirectional.
TEMPERATURE SENSORS: Cold spots are another manifestation the depletion of energy by paranormal events. Since coldspots are short-lived and tend to move about, conventional thermometers are not fast enough to record the phenomenon. The accepted way to check for cold spots are instant-reading infrared digital thermometers. It is best to add a laser pointer to these meters for good aim, in which case all the investigator has to do is point and shoot to get instant temperature readings of surfaces 10 to 50 or more feet away. For ambient or background temperature readings, a common thermometer or thermocouple device is sufficient. A motion detector is another very handy tool for paranormal research and can be used to trigger recording equipment. Using invisible infrared beams or vibration sensors, a motion detector can be used to remotely detect moving objects, opening doors and windows, and even the appearance of hot spots.
STATIC ELECTRICITY & IONIZATION DETECTORS: Paranormal activity can ionize the air to produce negatively charged particles called ions. This phenomena is easy to measure with an air ion counter. Static electricity and ionization emit light when the source field discharges into the air. Also, high ionization levels sometimes indicate the presence of radioactivity, and a geiger counter survey might be indicated in such cases.
EVP & LISTENING DEVICES: It is possible to actually listen to EMF energy levels and patterns, and sometimes this proves a very effective means of investigation of paranormal events. Although it is less quantitative, it provides immediate and very personal feedback. Electronic Voice Phenomena (EVP) have been picked up on just about any common recording devices from radios and tape recorders to televisions. For paranormal research, the best tool is a digital recorder that can be uploaded directly into a personal computer for analysis.
MISCELLANEOUS INSTRUMENTS: A variety of accessories used to record and enhance data collected during a paranormal investigation. Includes pocket field viewers, portable oscilloscopes, data loggers, and computer programs. Note: AC and automobile power adapters are readily available from Radio Shack for battery powered meters.